Take a trip back in time and go through the main moments of Mário Soares’ life, particularly the events about Europe.
7th December

Mário Alberto Nobre Soares is born in Lisbon. Son of Elisa Nobre Baptista and João Lopes Soares, a republican, politician (Member of Parliament and Minister during the First Republic), opponent to the New State dictatorship (“Estado Novo”), renowned pedagogue and founder of Colégio Moderno, in Lisbon.


He attends and finishes primary school at Bairro Escolar do Estoril, a private school founded by his father and João de Deus Ramos, and at the official school in Caldas da Rainha.


Attends high school at Colégio Nun’Álvares, continuing his studies at Colégio Moderno, in Lisbon.


Is arrested for the first time when the police interrupts a Gregorian music session commented by Fernando Lopes Graça, at Grémio Alentejano, in Lisbon.

16th September

Enrols in the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the University of Lisbon, in the Historical-Philosophical Sciences course.


Joins the Portuguese Communist Youth.


Starts his activity as an anti-fascist activist, handing out communist and MUNAF (Movement of National Anti-Fascist Unity) propaganda and, already in 1943, during the Summer school break, giving improvised lectures on political culture to small selected groups in the Caldas da Rainha region.


Joins the Portuguese Communist Party.


Publishes his first articles in the República daily newspaper, under a column titled “Culture for All” ("Cultura para Todos")


Meets Maria de Jesus Barroso, also a student at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the University of Lisbon, who would later become his wife.

8th May

The surrender of Nazi Germany puts an end to the war in Europe. Mário Soares is attending a class at the Faculty when he hears the news. He interrupts the class and, along with a group of students, urges his colleagues to leave the room. The group leaves the campus in a demonstration that walks from Chiado down to Rossio, in Lisbon downtown, waving small flags of the allied countries and being cheered by the people they meet.

9th May

Mário Soares, together with a group of comrades, stops classes at many universiries and high schools and calls for a public student demonstration starting at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon. Immediately after, the students join thousands of other people who march to the embassies of the United States, Britain and France.


Presents himself at the headquarters of the Movement of Democratic Unity (MUD), an organization that opposed the dictatorship, offering the support of the University and proposing the holding of a public session of young people, so as to ratify the students’ adhesion to the demands made by the Movement.

27th April

Mário Soares chairs the congress held at the José Estevão Republican Centre, where a decision is made to transform the Academic Movement of Democratic Unity (MAUD) into the Juvenile MUD. A Central Committee is elected, chaired by Mário Soares, who becomes the Juvenile MUD’s first representative in the district committee of the Lisbon MUD.

6th June

As a representative of the Juvenile MUD, he joins the MUD Central Committee.


Is arrested, this time by the International and State Defence Police (PIDE), the political police, along with all those who signed the documents in which MUD protests against Portugal’s application for admission to the United Nations. His imprisonment lasts a short time because everyone was bailed out, thanks to the generosity of Amadeu Gaudêncio, a great friend of João Soares.

30th November

Takes part in a session promoted by MUD in which he presents the communication “The youth is not with the New State” (“A Juventude não está com o Estado Novo”).

31th March

As a member of the MUD Central Committee, he signs a “Manifesto to the Youth” ("Manifesto à Juventude")


Is arrested, along with the entire Juvenile MUD Central Committee. He is released in August.

31th January

All the members of the MUD Central Committee are incarcerated at the Aljube Prison. Mário Soares is locked in the same cell with his father, who is still in prison following the anti-Salazar revolt of April 10th, 1947.


Mário Soares is appointed secretary-general of the services for the candidacy of General Norton de Matos to the Presidency of the Republic.

15th February

He is arrested. While in the Aljube prison, he marries, by proxy, Maria de Jesus Simões Barroso.

29th August

Their first child, João, is born.


Publishes his first book: As Ideias Político-Sociais de Teófilo Braga (The Political and Social Ideas of Teófilo Braga).

11th November

Is arrested while delivering a speech at the António José de Almeida Republican Centre, during the commemorative session of the “Peace Day”, being released the following day.


Finishes his Historical-Philosophical Sciences degree at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the University of Lisbon.

9th January

His daughter Isabel is born


Starts the Law course at the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon.


Starts the Law course at the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon.
Starts working at Colégio Moderno as an administrator and later on as a teacher.


With several opposition figures, such as Manuel Mendes, Piteira Santos, Ramos da Costa and Gustavo Soromenho, he founds the Socialist Republican Resistance.


Is one of the subscribers of the document “For Peace between Nations” ("Pela Paz entre as Nações").


As a representative of the Republican Resistance, Mário Soares becomes a member of the Social-Democratic Directory.


Completes the Law course at the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon.


Starts practicing law at the law firm of Gustavo Soromenho and Pimentel Saraiva, located at Rua do Ouro, no. 87, 2nd Direito, in Lisbon.

18th March

Is one of the subscribers of the document that the Social-Democratic Directory addresses to the President of the Council, Oliveira Salazar, asking for circumstances allowing for free and fair presidential elections.

18th March

Endorses and commits to General Humberto Delgado’s candidacy to the Presidency of the Republic.

11th March

Takes part in the “Revolt of the Sé”, a revolutionary military and civilian conspiracy that ends up being dismantled by the political police, PIDE.

18th March

Is one of the signers of the document that calls for the removal from political life of dictator Oliveira Salazar.


Defends several political prisoners, among which is one of the most active civilian conspirators, Fernando Oneto.

5th October

Carries out significant activity in organizing the commemorations of the 50th anniversary of the implantation of the Republic. Once again, he is arrested by the PIDE.

28th January

Is one of the main subscribers of the Program for the Democratization of the Republic, delivered at the Presidency of the Republic.


The subscribers of the Program for the Democratization of the Republic are arrested. Mário Soares serves six months in prison, in the Aljube and Caxias prisons.


Mário Soares is appointed Secretary-General of the Portuguese Socialist Action (ASP), which he founds in Geneva, with Francisco Ramos da Costa and Manuel Tito de Morais. At the same meeting, the new organization’s “Declaration of Principles” is approved.


After the murder of Humberto Delgado, Mário Soares and Abranches Ferrão are asked to be the lawyers of the general’s wife and children.

9th September

Mário Soares is detained, as are Abranches Ferrão, Raúl Rego, Pires de Lima and Catanho de Meneses, when he is preparing to travel to Spain to attend Humberto Delgado’s funeral.

14th October

On behalf of all the opposition candidates to the elections for the National Assembly, Mário Soares reads the “Manifesto to the Country” ("Manifesto ao País").

8th November

Is one of the signers of the “Exposition to the President of the Republic on the 40 years of the New State” ("Exposição ao presidente da República sobre os 40 anos do Estado Novo").

17th May

As Secretary-General of the Portuguese Socialist Action, he is received in Rome by leaders of the Italian Socialist Party.


An English journalist with the Sunday Telegraph contacts Mário Soares in order to collect information about the “Ballets Rose” case, a sex scandal involving personalities connected to the regime. Mário Soares refers him to lawyer Pires de Lima and merely informs him of the court in which the case is being tried.

12th December

The “Ballets Rose” case is reported by the Sunday Telegraph. Soares is arrested in his office at Rua do Ouro, charged with having provided “false and defamatory information to the international press, which could damage the good name of Portugal”. The arrest sparks a wave of international protests.

1st May

Mário Soares is released from the Caxias prison, no legal procedure having been initiated.

19th March

He is arrested again, and is informed that he is to be deported to the island of S. Tomé, for an indefinite period.

21th March

Leaves for exile in S. Tomé. At Lisbon Airport, a crowd, among which are his wife and children, demonstrates against his deportation. The police rushes the demonstrators, with the exception of Maria Barroso.


Mário Soares begins writing his exposé on fascism, the book Portugal Amordaçado (Portugal Gagged).

9th November

After Salazar has already been replaced by Marcello Caetano as President of the Council, Mário Soares returns to Portugal, arriving in Lisbon on the 12th.

15th April

He writes a “Brief comment on ‘A Family Conversation’, by Marcello Caetano”, which, in spite of significant cuts by the censorship, is published in the daily newspaper Diário de Lisboa.


Publishes the work Escritos Políticos, a compilation of several selected political writings, all dated after 1965, criticizing the country’s political situation and pointing out ways to democratize the regime.


Is one of the subscribers of the “To the Country” manifesto ("Ao País").


Presents a communication to the II Aveiro Congress, under the theme “The 1933 Constitution and the democratic evolution of the Country” ("A Constituição de 1933 e a evolução democrática do País").


With Gustavo Soromenho, Mário Soares attends the IX Congress of the Socialist International, in England, as a “guest of honour”, having the opportunity to address a greeting to the members of the Congress.


The Portuguese Socialist Action movement and several independents decide to form, in Lisbon, Porto and Braga, the Electoral Committee of Democratic Unity (CEUD).

1st April

At the end of a trip aiming to elucidate and report about the Portuguese political situation, which takes him to Brazil, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Mexico and the United States of America, Mário Soares gives an important press conference at the Overseas Press Club, in New York, organized by Ibérica magazine and sponsored by the International League for Human Rights, during which he denounces the Portuguese Government’s colonial policy and the illegal arrests of Salgado Zenha and Jaime Gama.

10th April

At the invitation of the President of the Commission of European Countries not Members of the Council of Europe, he travels to Strasbourg to take part in a debate on “Human rights violations in Portugal”, which takes place during the 22nd ordinary session of the Council of Europe.


Mário Soares is forced into exile following a process in which he is accused of “treason against the Fatherland”. He spends a few months, as an exile, in the home of a friend, the scientist and also oppositionist Mário Ruivo, in the Italian village of Piediluco, although he takes up residence in Paris.

31th July

His father, João Lopes Soares, dies. Without prior authorization, Mário Soares travels to Portugal to attend his father’s funeral and pay him his final respects. Three days later, the General Directorate of Security (DGS) offers him two choices: either he goes into exile or is immediately arrested. Soares leaves the country again and returns to Paris.


He is hired as Chargé de Cours (Visiting Professor) at Vincennes (Paris VIII) and at the Sorbonne.

23 and 24th October

In Milan, he takes part in the colloquium “The problems of Mediterranean countries within the context of European integration”. Enrique Tierno Galván also participates.


Is invited to teach as a Visiting Professor at the University of Upper Brittany (Rennes).


Publishes, in Paris, with the Calmann-Levy publishing company, the book Portugal Bailloné – Un Témoignage. The Portuguese Government forbids importing or printing the book.


The Portuguese Socialist Action is admitted as full member of the Socialist International, during this organization’s 12th Congress, held in Vienna. During the Congress, Mário Soares makes an important speech as part of a debate on the theme “A Socialist Policy for Europe”.

19th April

The Socialist Party (PS) is founded in Bad Münstereifel, on the outskirts of Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), resulting from a meeting of a group of socialists who decide to transform the ASP into a political party. Mário Soares is elected Secretary-General of the PS.


The first Congress of the Socialist Party is held. Mário Soares presents an analysis report on the political situation and prospects for action.


Mário Soares travels to London (at the same time as Marcello Caetano), at the invitation of the Labour Party and the Catholic Institute for International Relations. At the head of a PS delegation, consisting of Jorge Campinos, Fernando Loureiro and José Neves, and during the three days of his visit, he holds talks with a Labour Party delegation which included Harold Wilson, James Callaghan and Ron Hayward. At the end of these talks, both delegations issue an extensive joint statement in which they state, namely, that “Marcello Caetano cannot be recognized as the legitimate representative of the Portuguese People”.

8th March

He publishes an article in the newspaper Le Monde where he states that “something is finally moving in Portugal!

25th April

From Bonn, where he was staying, invited by Willy Brandt, Mário Soares leaves for Paris after being informed by the services of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD) that a revolutionary military movement has erupted in Portugal.

26th April

Still in Paris, Mário Soares issues a statement saying that “the action by the Portuguese Armed Forces, overthrowing the fascist and colonialist Government of Marcello Caetano, represents a highly positive and patriotic act, which opens a new phase in national life” and calls for “the wider unity of all democratic and progressive forces”. The statement is signed by Mário Soares, Manuel Tito de Morais, Francisco Ramos da Costa, Jorge Campinos and Fernando Loureiro.

27th April

Accompanied by Maria Barroso, Tito de Morais, Ramos da Costa and other socialist leaders, as well as his friend and fellow exile Fernando Oneto, Mário Soares leaves for Lisbon on the Sud Express, the “freedom train”.

28th April

Mário Soares returns to Portugal, being the first political exile and leader of the democratic opposition to return. In Santa Apolónia, he greets the huge crowd that cheers him and, from the main balcony of the train station, gives a brief speech. After an impromptu press conference in the waiting room, crowded with journalists, Raúl Rêgo asks Mário Soares to follow him to the headquarters of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, in Cova da Moura, where General Spínola is waiting for him. The General asks him to use his international influence to get the new Portuguese political power recognized.

1st May

He speaks at the 1.º de Maio Stadium in front of a huge crowd gathered there.

2nd May

Travelling on a TAP (Portuguese Air Transports) plane, expressly chartered for that purpose by the Junta de Salvação Nacional (National Salvation Junta), Mário Soares becomes the first messenger of the 25th of April in Europe, visiting the capitals of EEC Member States. In London, he is received by Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, in Bonn by Willy Brandt, in Rome by Pietro Nenni and in the Vatican by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli. In Helsinki he meets the four leaders of the Scandinavian social democracy – Olof Palme (Sweden), Kalevi Sorsa (Finland), Tygrevie Brateli (Norway) and Anker Jorgensen (Denmark) – in order to explain, to the European Heads of State and Government, the importance of the changes occurring in Portugal.
In Brussels, he holds a first secret meeting with the President of the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA).

16th May

He is appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs of the I Provisional Government.
States that Portugal recognizes as its interlocutors the independence movements: PAIGC (Guinea-Bissau), MPLA, UNITA and FNLA (Angola) and FRELIMO (Mozambique).

3rd July

At a PS rally in Porto, thousands of people applaud the speeches of François Mitterrand and Mário Soares. The next day, there is a new rally, this time in Lisbon.

17th July

Mário Soares is appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs of the II Provisional Government.

2nd August

Officially receives, in Lisbon, the UN Secretary-General, Kurt Waldheim, with whom he debates the situation of African territories under Portuguese administration, with a view to their respective decolonization processes.

26th August

Heads the Portuguese delegation that negotiates and signs, in Algiers, with a PAIGC delegation headed by Pedro Pires, the agreement that sets September 10th as the date for the final recognition of the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau.

5 and 6th September

In Lusaka, at the head of a Portuguese delegation including Almeida Santos and Melo Antunes, Mário Soares negotiates and signs a ceasefire agreement with FRELIMO, and sets June 25th, 1975 as the date for the proclamation of the independence of the People’s Republic of Mozambique.

23th September

Mário Soares travels to New York, where he delivers a speech at the 29th session of the UN General Assembly, under the theme “The new Portugal and the United Nations”. International news agencies stress that, when he finished his speech, he was given a real “hero’s welcome”. During his stay in the USA, he meets with Henry Kissinger and Robert McNamara.

28th September

Addresses the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe.


The Portuguese version of Portugal Amordaçado is published.

1st October

Mário Soares takes office as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the III Provisional Government.

15th October

He accompanies the President of the Republic, Francisco da Costa Gomes, on his visit to the USA, where he meets with Gerald Ford. The two presidents agree on establishing a broader cooperation between Portugal and the USA.

13-15th December

The First Congress of the Socialist Party as a legal political party. Mário Soares, as the party’s Secretary-General, presents the report “Socialism, yes, dictatorship, no!” ("Socialismo, sim, ditadura, não"), approved by 850 votes for and 3 against. He is re-elected Secretary-General of the PS.

14th January

A Socialist Party rally against the single trade union policy takes place.

26th March

Mário Soares takes office as Minister without Portfolio of the IV Provisional Government.

1st May

During the Labour Day celebrations, in Lisbon, a number of incidents occur. Mário Soares is stopped from entering the 1.º de Maio Stadium.

19th May

Beginning of the crisis in the newspaper República, between part of the workers and its director, Raul Rêgo, and the rest of the board. The PS reacts strongly. Mário Soares, with other socialist leaders and some supporters, protest outside the newspaper’s building, accusing the PCP (Portuguese Communist Party) of being behind the events.

10th July

Mário Soares and all the socialist ministers resign from the IV Provisional Government, following the “República affair”.

19th July

At a large rally organized by the PS at Fonte Luminosa, in Lisbon, Mário Soares calls for the resignation of the Prime Minister, Vasco Gonçalves.

6th November

Mário Soares and the leader of the PCP, Álvaro Cunhal, debate in front of the RTP (Portuguese Radio-Television) cameras; their conflicting positions on the political situation and visions for the country become evident.

23th November

At the second large rally organized by the PS at Fonte Luminosa, in Lisbon, Mário Soares gives an electrifying speech in support of the VI Provisional Government.


He publishes Liberdade para Portugal (Freedom for Portugal), in collaboration with Willy Brandt and Bruno Kreiski.


In Porto, a Socialist Summit begins, aiming to show solidarity with the PS, called “Europe with Us” ("A Europa Connosco"), attended by delegations and political leaders from all Western European countries.

23th July

Mário Soares takes office as Prime Minister of the I Constitutional Government.

2nd August

At the Assembly of the Republic, Mário Soares opens the discussion of the I Constitutional Government’s program, which advocates Portugal’s accession to the EEC, namely saying: “With regard to the European Economic Community (EEC), it is also necessary to consider our accession, although the process will necessarily be longer and more complex than the one envisaged for the Council of Europe. However, this is the path we have to take.”

20th August

Portugal requests admission to the Council of Europe.

17th September

The President of the EEC Council of Ministers, Max Van der Stoel, meets with Mário Soares and Ramalho Eanes in Lisbon.

22th September

Portugal is admitted to the Council of Europe, becoming its 19th Member State. The Minister of Foreign Affairs, José Medeiros Ferreira, signs the European Convention on Human Rights.

30th October

Mário Soares is re-elected Secretary-General of the PS at the party’s II Congress.

26th November

Is elected vice-president of the Socialist International, in Geneva.

29th November

Receives the highest award given by the International League for Human Rights.

29th November

The Assembly of the Republic empowers the Portuguese Government to request Portugal’s accession to the European Communities.

31th December

Portugal’s Admission Treaty to the Council of Europe is promulgated.

14-21th February

Mário Soares carries out the first stage of a visit to EEC capitals to explain the reasons for Portugal’s application for accession and to gather views on the subject. At this stage, he travels to London, Dublin, Copenhagen, Rome and also the Vatican.

7-11th March

He carries out the second stage of the visit (Paris, Bonn, The Hague, Luxembourg and Brussels), going also to Strasbourg, seat of the Council of Europe. On the 11th he delivers a speech during a visit to the European Commission.

19th March

Before the Assembly of the Republic, Mário Soares reports on his travels to the capitals of EEC Member States. He states that European integration “represents the opening of Portugal to modernity”.

28th March

Portugal formally requests accession to the European Communities (ECSC, EEC, EAEC).

5th April

Portugal’s application for accession to the Common Market is formally accepted.

28th April

In Strasbourg, Mário Soares speaks before the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe to state that the “back to Europe” path had been set by the Portuguese Government and was an “essential milestone”.

12th October

Following the resignation of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, José Medeiros Ferreira, Mário Soares assumes the portfolio until the end of the Government’s mandate.

29th th

Mário Soares is chosen to give the opening lesson at the College of Europe, in Bruges, where he says: “Accession is for us the indispensable qualitative leap that will create, at the same time, a solid defence for our recently established democratic institutions and the irreversible path towards a destiny we want to be a part of”.

10th November

The President of the Commission of the European Communities, Roy Jenkins, visits Portugal.

7th December

Mário Soares presents, at the Assembly of the Republic, a motion of confidence in the Government, and it is rejected. The First Constitutional Government is overthrown.

19th January

Mário Soares is appointed Prime Minister, after a parliamentary governmental agreement between the PS and the CDS (Democratic and Social Centre).

30th January

The II Constitutional Government, headed by Mário Soares, takes office.

28th March

The Vice-President of the European Commission, Lorenzo Natali, visits Portugal.

19th May

The European Commission gives a favourable view on Portugal’s application for accession. The Commission asks the Council of Ministers to open negotiations as soon as possible.

6th June

The EEC Council of Ministers approves Portugal’s application, agreeing with the Commission’s favourable view, and starts formal negotiations.

27th July

The President of the Republic, Ramalho Eanes, exonerates Mário Soares from the post of Prime Minister. The Government falls.

17th October

In Luxembourg, there is a formal session to open negotiations for Portugal’s accession to the European Communities.

1st November

The additional and financial protocols of the 1972 agreements between Portugal and the EEC, signed on August 20th, 1976, enter into force.


Mário Soares publishes the book O Futuro Será o Socialismo Democrático (“The Future Will Be Democratic Socialism”), a compilation of several interviews given to journalists.

2-4th March

The 3rd Congress of the PS takes place, approving the document “Ten years to change Portugal” ("Dez anos para mudar Portugal"), and re-electing Mário Soares as Secretary-General.

23th May

The EEC grants a loan of approximately 27 million US dollars to Portugal to support investment in electricity-related development projects.

3rd August

Heading a delegation from the Socialist International, Mário Soares travels to Nicaragua and Ecuador.

30th September

The Vice-President of the EEC, Lorenzo Natali, travels to Portugal in order to inaugurate the EEC Information Office in the country.

13th May

Richard Burke, EEC commissioner, announces in Lisbon that Portugal and Spain will join the EEC at the same time.

23th July

The EEC decides to grant Portugal a pre-accession financial aid package in order to prepare the country for integration into the Community.

25th August

As Secretary-General of the PS, Mário Soares officially announces his party’s support for General Ramalho Eanes in the presidential elections.

17th September

The European Parliament confirms January 1st, 1983, will be the date of Portugal’s accession to the EEC.

18th October

Mário Soares suspends himself as Secretary-General of the PS, refusing to approve General Eanes’ candidacy to be re-elected as President of the Republic due to the latter’s statements at a press conference on the 14th. The National Commission of the PS chooses to maintain the support to Ramalho Eanes.

17th November

The draft agreement between the EEC and Portugal concerning the implementation of the pre-accession financial aid is signed.

10th December

Mário Soares resumes his functions as Secretary-General of the PS.

10th May

He is re-elected Secretary-General of the PS at the party’s IV Congress. The same day, François Mitterrand wins the French presidential elections. Mário Soares travels to Paris to congratulate the new French president.

17th May

The President of the European Parliament, Simone Veil, comes to Lisbon for official meetings, pointing out that the main problems concerning Portugal’s accession are those related to textile production, the Portuguese workers’ freedom of movement in EEC countries and matters involving agricultural policy.

18th May

In Brussels, the EEC Foreign Ministers fail to reach an agreement on several issues concerning Portugal’s accession, particularly the trade regime of Portuguese textile exports after the accession.

1st October

During the opening of a seminar on “Regional policy in the enlarged community”, promoted by the PS, Mário Soares accuses the Government of being unable to overcome the impasse in the negotiations for accession to the EEC.

19th November

The European Parliament passes a resolution favourable to the accession of Portugal and Spain to the EEC on January 1984.

22th February

Portugal negotiates the first five accession dossiers.

22th March

A proposal on the free movement of labour submitted by Portugal to the EEC is rejected.

20th July

The EEC Council of Ministers agrees on the textile trade regime that will be proposed to Portugal.

11th October

Mário Soares debates again with Álvaro Cunhal, on the TV programme Clube da Imprensa (“Press Club”), on RTP channel 2.

18th February

Takes part, with Felipe González, in Madrid, in the PS-PSOE summit.

14th March

There is an impasse in the negotiations for Portugal’s accession to the EEC, since there is no agreement on the control of foreign investments in Portugal, nor on the application of zero level to VAT.

21th March

Gaston Thorn, President of the EEC Executive Committee, calls upon European leaders to speed up, as much as possible, the negotiation processes for the accession of both Portugal and Spain to the EEC.

4th July

Mário Soares and Carlos Alberto Mota Pinto, the PSD (Social Democratic Party) leader, sign a political, parliamentary and governmental agreement between both their parties.

9th June

Takes office as Prime Minister of the IX Constitutional Government.

27th June

At a meeting in Brussels, the dossiers on Portugal’s accession to the EEC related to the harmonization of legislation, environmental protection and consumer protection are finished.

30th September

Mário Soares is re-elected Secretary-General of the PS during the party’s V Congress, with 86.4% of the votes.

24th November

In Brussels, he takes part in a meeting of the Socialist International. He also meets with several European Community officials.

21th January

Once more, Mário Soares states that the main investments to modernize Portuguese economy depend on the country’s accession to the EEC.

26th January

In Geneva, he declares that Portugal will renounce becoming an EEC Member State if a decision on the accession is not taken by June.

20th February

The EEC Council of Ministers sets the date of June 30th, 1984 to conclude negotiations for the accession of Portugal and Spain to the Community, thus agreeing tacitly with the integration of both countries as of January 1st, 1986.

28th February

The European Parliament / Assembly of the Republic Joint Committee recommends that Portugal’s accession to the Common Market take place on January 1st, 1986.

14th May

The EEC Council of Ministers approves a document on the fisheries sector meant to regulate the Portuguese situation vis-à-vis the EEC. Two days later, Minister Ernâni Lopes declares that Portugal does not accept the EEC proposal for the sector.

25th June

In Paris, François Mitterrand announces that Portugal’s accession to the EEC will come through on January 1st, 1986.

30th July

Mário Soares and João Mota Amaral study the integration of the Azores in the Common Market.

22th October

Presentation of the Portuguese and EEC “Joint Declaration” (Constat d’Accord).

24th October

In Dublin, signature of the “Joint Declaration” (Constat d’Accord) by Mário Soares and Garret Fitzgerald, Irish Prime Minister and President of the Council of the European Communities. Mário Soares delivers a speech at the ceremony.

10th January

First meeting of the Drafting Committee of the Treaty of Accession of Portugal and Spain to the Common Market.

17th January

European Parliament resolution on the accession of Portugal and Spain.

30th January

Start of a two-day meeting of EEC Foreign Ministers, together with Spanish and Portuguese delegations, about the negotiation of the enlargement.

8th March

Mário Soares speaks at the closing session of the International Conference on the Integration of Portugal in the EEC, taking place in Lisbon since the 4th.

21th March

Agreement in principle between Portugal and the EEC on agriculture, fisheries and social affairs.

28th March

The EEC Council of Ministers is presented with a global compromise proposal for Portugal’s accession, consisting of four dossiers – Social Affairs, Agriculture, Fisheries and Own Resources.

8th April

In Madrid, Mário Soares takes part in the Congress of the Union of EEC Socialist Parties. He also meets with Felipe González concerning the accession of both Iberian countries to the EEC.

12th April

Mário Soares closes the parliamentary debate on the integration of Portugal in the EEC.

29th April

EEC Foreign Ministers set the date for the signature of the accession treaties of Portugal and Spain: June 12th, 1985.

8th May

European Parliament resolution on the official view concerning the conclusion of the accession negotiations of both Portugal and Spain.

25th May

During the Portuguese-Spanish Summit, Mário Soares and Felipe González debate the construction of a political Europe.

4th June

The Council of Ministers empowers the Prime Minister to officially inform the President of the Republic that the conditions needed to sign the accession treaty have been met.

12th June

Official signing ceremony of Portugal’s Treaty of Accession to the EEC, at the Jerónimos Monastery, which will come into force on January 1st, 1986. Mário Soares, Bettino Craxi, Giulio Andreotti and Jacques Delors deliver speeches.
Mário Soares states: “For Portugal, joining the EEC represents a fundamental option for a future of progress and modernity. But let us not think it is an easy option. It will demand a lot from the Portuguese, although it simultaneously opens up to them broad perspectives for development”.

13th June

Mário Soares is received by the President of the Republic and addresses the country via RTP, announcing his resignation.

8th July

The Assembly of the Republic ratifies Portugal’s Treaty of Accession to the EEC, with votes in favour from PS, PSD, CDS, ASDI and UEDS, and votes against from PCP and the Green Party, MDP being absent.

18th July

In a Lisbon hotel, there is a ceremony in which many individualities invite Mário Soares to run for President of the Republic.

27th July

At the PS National Convention, held in Lisbon, the decision made by Mário Soares to run for President of the Republic is acclaimed and unanimously approved.

11th September

The accession of Portugal and Spain to the EEC is approved by the European Parliament, through the approval of its Political Commission’s report recommending the enlargement of the Common Market to the two Iberian countries.

18th September

Mário Soares speaks at the inauguration ceremony of the Lisbon headquarters of his candidacy for the Presidency of the Republic.

13th November

He suspends himself from the post of Secretary-General of the PS, being replaced by António Macedo.

20th December

The Assembly of the Republic elects the first 24 Portuguese MPs who, starting on January 13th, 1986, will sit at the EEC Parliament plenary.

1st January

Portugal and Spain formally become part of the European Communities.

26th January

The first round of the presidential elections takes place. Freitas do Amaral obtains 46.3% of the votes, Mário Soares 25.4%, Salgado Zenha 20.9% and Lurdes Pintassilgo 7.4%. The two candidates who received the most votes pass to the second round.

16th February

The second round of the presidential elections takes place: Mário Soares, with 51.8% of the votes, defeats Freitas do Amaral (48.8%), thus becoming the first civilian to occupy the Presidency of the Republic since the fall of the First Republic, in 1926.

9th March

Mário Soares takes office as President of the Republic before the Assembly of the Republic, in a solemn session. On this occasion, he delivers a speech titled “Unite the Portuguese, Serve Portugal” ("Unir os Portugueses, Servir Portugal").

6th July

Starts a visit to Strasbourg where, before the European Parliament, he delivers a speech titled “The European Destiny of Portugal” ("O Destino Europeu de Portugal").

16th September

Beginning of the first “Open Presidency” ("Presidência Aberta") by Mário Soares, in the city of Guimarães. Between the 16th and the 25th, he also visits Braga, Porto and Viana do Castelo.

26th December

Signs the decree ratifying the treaty that establishes the Single European Act.

1st May

At the American-European Community Association, in Washington, he delivers a speech titled “A worldwide responsibility”.

18th May

At the Wilson Centre, in Washington, he delivers a speech titled “A Modern, Human and Progressive Society”. Receives an honoris causa (honorary doctorary) from Brown University.

15th June

Receives the Robert Schuman Award.

21th June

Chairs the opening session of the 8th EEC-Latin America Interparliamentary Conference, at the Jerónimos Monastery, in Lisbon. Delivers the speech “A Dialoguing Europe” ("Uma Europa em Diálogo").

22th November

In Moscow, he delivers a speech in which he defends the need to “Contribute to a climate of dialogue and trust”.

11th April

Chairs the solemn opening session of the international congress on “The Greco-Latin Humanities and Universal Civilization”, with the presence of Leopold Senghor.

16th May

In Luxembourg, at the seat of the Court of Justice of the Communities, he speaks about “fulfilling the European ideal”.

15th October

In Lubeck (RFA), together with the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, he chairs the closing ceremony of the Campaign for the Rural World, organized by the Council of Europe.

18th October

Addresses the FAO General Assembly, in Rome, on World Food Day. His speech is titled “Everyone’s combat" ("Um combate de todos)”.

29th November

Chairs the closing session of the Assembly of European Regions, in Funchal, where he delivers the speech “A more supportive Europe” ("Uma Europa mais solidária").

12th April

Receives an honoris causa from the Bologna University and, at the European University Institute, in Florence, delivers a speech on the future of Europe and its responsibilities to the world.

28th September - 2nd October

During a state visit to Hungary, he delivers two speeches, titled “The other Europe” and “The universal value of freedom”.

20-24th November

During a state visit to Guinea-Bissau, he delivers the speech “Secular friendship” ("Amizade secular").

24-26th November

During a state visit to Côte d’Ivoire, his addresses are mainly concerned with the consolidation of a “North-South” solidarity.

26-30th November

During a state visit to Zaire, he delivers the speech “Development and freedom” ("Desenvolvimento e liberdade").

9th February

Chairs the opening session of the 3rd Annual Conference of the Semanário Económico weekly newspaper, under the theme “Europe of the 90s”, in which, among other Portuguese and foreign personalities, take part Henry Kissinger and Martin Feldstein. He then gives a lecture titled “Europe in the 90s”.

14-15th May

Receives the President of the Republic of South Africa, Frederick de Klerk, during the latter’s official visit to Portugal. He then delivers a speech titled “The courage of change” ("A coragem da mudança").

15-20th May

During a state visit to Morocco, he delivers a speech titled “A gathering of cultures” ("Um reencontro de culturas").

22th July

Delivers the speech “Valuing the sea” ("Valorizar o mar") at the opening session of the 1st General Assembly of the Hispanic-Portuguese-American Institute of Maritime Law.

17-18th September

In Strasbourg, he chairs the international colloquium “Europe: les chemins de la Democratie”, organized by the Council of Europe.

3rd October

Declares he will re-apply for the Presidency of the Republic with a speech titled “Let us organize the ways of the future together”.

19th October

Delivers the speech “Portugal in the European Community of the future” ("Portugal na Comunidade Europeia do futuro") at the opening session of the conference organized by the Socialist Group of the European Parliament and held in Lisbon.

28th December

Addresses the honour commission of his campaign for re-election to the Presidency of the Republic: “My ambition: to serve Portugal in modernization, participation and solidarity”.

13th January

Mário Soares is re-elected President of the Republic, with 70.4% of the votes. The other candidates obtain the following votes: Basílio Horta, 14.2%; Carlos Carvalhas, 12.9%; and Carlos Marques, 2.6%.

9th March

Inauguration session of Mário Soares’ second term as President of the Republic. He delivers a speech titled “National imperative” ("Imperativo nacional").

8th April

Delivers the speech “The Renascent Dialogues” ("Os diálogos renascentes"), in Florence, during a ceremony in which he is awarded the Academic Recognition Medal by Studi di Firenze.

12th September

The Mário Soares Foundation is created in Lisbon.

14th February

Mário Soares chairs the colloquium “Reflections on the New European Political Charter”, which, following the Prague meetings, takes place at the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, in Lisbon.

15th March

Takes part in the “Great Catholic Conferences”, held in Brussels, where he delivers a speech titled “Europe’s humanist design”.

21th May

Chairs a Council of State meeting called to analyse the Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht, and its implications.

27th May

Delivers the speech “Jacques Delors: a European citizen”, at the ceremony held in Aachen that awards the Charlemagne Prize to the President of the Commission of the European Communities.

11-13rd June

In Barcelona, he takes part in the Conference “The Iberian Countries within the New Europe”.

26th June

The Lisbon summit, taking place at the Centro Cultural de Belém, ends the Portuguese presidency of the EEC. “A toast for Europe” ("Um brinde pela Europa") are Mário Soares’ words to the Heads of State and Government who are present at the banquet in their honour at Palácio da Ajuda.

14-16th October

In Lyon, France, Mário Soares gives a lecture titled “Resistance and memory” ("Resistência e memória"), as part of the sessions put together by the Centre for the History of the Resistance and Deportation.

4th November

In Porto, he chairs the opening session of a cycle of lectures under the theme “Portugal, Europe and the World: Development Strategies”.

3rd May

Mário Soares delivers the speech “The sea: Heritage of the World”, in Lisbon, at the opening session of the Annual Meeting of ACOP (International Organization for the Protection of the Sea).


Publishes, in Expansão magazine, the article “The EEC option, eight years later” ("A opção comunitária, oito anos depois").

21th September

At a reception given to Hassan II, King of Morocco, at the Ajuda Palace, in Lisbon, Mário Soares delivers the speech “Portugal and the Mediterranean world”.

9-10th October

In Porto, at the Coliseu, he chairs the ceremony of the European awards “Prix Europa 93”.

28-31th October

Delivers the speech “An example of a dialogue between cultures” ("Exemplo de diálogo entre culturas"), during the ceremony in which he is granted an honoris causa doctorate by the Asia International Open University, in Macau.

19-11th November

Receives the leader of the PLO, Yasser Arafat, in an official visit. Delivers the speech “Achieving peace” ("Conseguir a paz") during a dinner offered in honour of the Palestinian leader, at the Queluz Palace.

26th February

Chairs the opening ceremony of “Lisbon 94 – European Capital of Culture”.

11th July

Addresses a message to the country, titled “Portuguese and Europeans” ("Portugueses e Europeus"), calling for the people to vote on the elections for the European Parliament.

5-6th July

Travels to Paris for the ceremony, at UNESCO, in which the Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize is awarded to Yitzhac Rabin, Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat.

16-18th September

In Hyères-les-Palmiers (Nice), he takes part in the International Conference “Humanism and Dialogue of the Mediterranean Peoples”.

17-19th September

In Geneva, he takes part in the conference “The European Union and Small Countries – the cases of Portugal and Switzerland”.


The Independent World Commission on the Oceans is created in Tokyo. Mário Soares accepts to be its chairman.

4th June

The Mário Soares Foundation is inaugurated in Lisbon.


Is elected president of the Portugal-Africa Foundation.

21th March

Mário Soares is elected, in Rome, President of the European Movement. During the event, he states: “The most important task will be to press for the idea of Europe to be broadened and spread in a federalist logic. A Europe of young people, women and citizens with rights and duties”.

21th march

In Rome, he receives the Peace Prize of the Together for Peace Foundation.

17th April

Opening of the Mário Soares Archive, deposited at the Mário Soares Foundation, in Lisbon.


Mário Soares is appointed Chairman of the Committee of Wise Persons of the Council of Europe. The Committee presents its final report in November 1998.


In Paris, he receives the International Simón Bolívar Prize from UNESCO.


At the initiative of the Lisbon Group, he is appointed Chairman of the Committee for the World Water Contract.


Is appointed President of the National Commission for the Celebrations of the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.


Is appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to head the fact-finding mission on the situation in Algeria. He hands in the mission’s final report on September 10th, 1998.


The report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, is titled “The Ocean our future” and is published in English.

13th June

Mário Soares is head of the Socialist Party’s list to the European elections, and is elected Member of the European Parliament, where he remains until 2004.

20th June

He runs for President of the European Parliament, but loses to French MEP Nicole Fontaine.


Publicly and harshly criticizes George W. Bush, on account of the US military intervention in Afghanistan.


Takes part in the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The forum’s slogan is “Another world is possible”.


Is elected president of the European Parliament’s delegation for relations with Israel. A few months later he resigns, for reasons of conscience.

10th January

Is the first person to sign the manifesto against the military intervention in Iraq, titled “For Peace, Against War”.

15th February

Takes part in a public demonstration, in Lisbon, against the war in Iraq. In the end, he delivers a speech against the Bush administration.

22th march

Takes part in yet another public demonstration, in Lisbon, against the war in Iraq.


Publishes the book Um Mundo Inquietante (A Disquieting World), dedicating a chapter to the theme “A Changing Europe”.


Publishes the book Incursões Literárias (Literary Incursions), where he states: “I have always had, perhaps, a literary view of life”.


Publishes the book A Crise. E Agora? (The Crisis. What Now?), where he writes about the crisis Portugal is going through.

31th August

Announces his third candidacy for the Presidency of the Republic. He has the support of the Socialist Party.

22th January

The Presidential elections are held and Mário Soares is third, with only 14.3% of the votes.


Europeu e Mundial (An Iberian Dialogue in the European and World Context).


Chairs, for the first time, the jury of the UNESCO Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize.


Is appointed president of the National Commission on Religious Freedom.


Is appointed patron of the International Ocean Institute.


Publishes the book Um Mundo em Mudança (A Changing World), a collection of texts published in the national and international press, where he ponders on the main issues concerning the country, Europe and the world.


Publishes the book O Elogio da Política (The Praise of Politics), where he ponders the importance of politics, politicians and parties in democracy, from an historical point of view.


He publishes the book Em Luta por um Mundo Melhor (Struggling for a Better World), a collection of texts, some of which about Europe.


Publishes the book No Centro do Furacão. Reflexões sobre a Europa e Portugal em Tempos de Mudança (In the Eye of the Hurricane. Reflections on Europe and Portugal during times of change).


Publishes an autobiographical, political and ideological essay, Um Político Assume-se (A Politician Comes Forward).


In Lisbon, he organizes two great meetings of left and independent parties, opposing austerity, the Portuguese Government and the President of the Republic. During the second meeting, Mário Soares even asks for the resignation of the President of the Republic.


Is elected personality of the year by representatives of the foreign press in Portugal.


Publishes the book A Esperança é Necessária (Hope is Necessary).


Publishes the book Em Defesa do Futuro (In defence of the future).

7th July

His wife, Maria de Jesus Barroso, dies.

28th September

His last public appearance, in homage to his wife.

7th January

Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares dies, in Lisbon. His funeral, the first with State honours in the history of Portuguese democracy, takes place three days later, at the Jerónimos Monastery.